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The art of representation by use of lines or other marks. Traditional drawing media includes pencil, charcoal, pen and ink, chalk, and pastels, while more modern materials include coloured pencils, Conté crayons, wax crayons, and felt-tip pens, or markers.
In its wider sense, refers to all pigments mixed with water rather than with oil and also to the paintings produced by this process; it includes fresco and tempera as well as aquarelle, the process now commonly meant by the generic term.
An increasingly important technique in European painting since the late 15th century Oil painting in one form or another had been known since antiquity for coarse work such as house painting, but the technique was immensely refined in early 15th-century Flanders, the improved medium being gradually taken up by Italian painters.
Landscape Painting: Britain
British landscape painting exhibited a Wordsworthian impulse to return to nature and a thirst for knowledge about natural phenomena in the post-Enlightenment era, thereby developing along aesthetic modes of inquiry that took cues from seventeenth-century Dutch painting and eighteenth-century discourse on the beautiful, the picturesque, and the sublime.
Lithography and Prints
Until the final years of the eighteenth century, printed images were made from incised planks of wood or metal plates. These traditional techniques had been in use in Europe since late medieval times.
One of the simplest methods of printing, using designs carved into wood.
The early history of English prints is undistinguished. From the 1480s numerous woodcuts were used in books, but they are of low quality (see popular art). Line engraving was introduced in the mid 16c., mainly for portraits and emblematic titlepages, but for nearly 100 years the best engravers were immigrants from the Netherlands.
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