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The term “deontology” is a modern combination of Classical Greek terms, and means the study or science (logos) of duty, or more precisely, of what one ought to do (deon). In contemporary moral philosophy, “deontology” is used most commonly to refer to moral conceptions which endorse several theses regarding the nature of duty (the right), the nature of value (the good), and the relationship between the primary ethical concepts of the right and the good.
Duty and Obligation
The idea that certain acts are required, or ought to be done, can be found both in philosophical and in everyday practical discussion. Such requirements are often spoken of as obligations or duties. No hard-and-fast distinction can be drawn between the two terms. Generally “obligation” is used for more abstract claims (e.g., we would speak more readily of “principles of obligation” than of “principles of duty”) and “duty” for more specific demands
The term “Kantian ethics” refers primarily to the ethical theory of Immanuel KANT (1724-1804) but is used more generally to refer to other theories that incorporate some of Kant's central ideas, including the good will, the moral law, moral obligation, acting from duty, the categorical imperative, the opposing of duty to inclination, ethical FORMALISM, rationalism, universality, DEONTOLOGY, rigorism, absolutism, autonomy, freedom, DIGNITY of persons, and a realm of ends.
The term “teleological” comes from the Greek word telos for goal or aim. The idea of teleological ethics in recent usage has been understood, most fundamentally, as standing in contrast with “deontological” approaches to ethics.
A prominent, compelling, and controversial theory about the fundamental basis of morality, utilitarianism holds that human conduct should promote the interests or welfare of those affected.
Plato is one of the founding fathers of philosophy and has had a massive impact on the history of western thought.
Aristotle, a Greek philosopher and protégé of Plato, is considered the Father of the Scientific Method, the creator of formal logic, and one of the greatest thinkers in the history of the Western world.
Friedrich Nietzsche has emerged as perhaps the most influential thinker of the recent past. To a significant degree, this is due to the fact that he took time seriously in terms of both cosmology and ethics.
Immanuel K Kant, like Plato and Aristotle, counts as one of the most influential philosophers of all time.
Jeremy Bentham is known today chiefly as the father of utilitarianism.
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill (1806–73) changed the way in which the modern world views, and legal systems address, the issues of individual liberty of thought, expression, lifestyle, and action. His ideas remain both influential and controversial to this day.