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These are articles about "Just War" from our Military and Government database. Click on the title to go to the full text.
James Turner Johnson, Just War Tradition, and Forms of Practical Reasoning
This paper argues that James Turner Johnson's work models a particular form of practical reasoning: a kind of historical casuistry. This means that Johnson's contributions are not only descriptive, but normative in nature. Tracing this theme through various works, this article seeks to point to distinctions drawn by Johnson between his own model and those in which just war thinking is tied to one or more philosophically or theologically grounded principles.
Just War Tradition and the Question of Authority
This article asks who is an authority to comment on the just war tradition through an engagement with the work of James Turner Johnson. Primarily, it explores Johnson's critique of the American Catholic bishops on the tradition as a means to flesh out this question.
Just What is a Just War?
The article presents an historical overview of military actions and wars fought throughout Western history since the 19th century which had influences from the "just war" tradition and rationales of humanitarian intervention.
On the Just War Tradition in the Twenty-First Century
This article argues that the rebirth of interest in the just war tradition, both academically and practically, over the last few years rests on a shaky foundation. It suggests that the character of the just war as a tradition is ill suited to certain aspects of the contemporary intellectual and political world and that historical developments in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have combined unhelpfully to narrow the tradition's concerns.
Thinking Historically about Just War
This essay responds to the six essays on my thought above, doing so both directly on particularly important points and indirectly through my own reflections on how I understand my work and its development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Advocacy of opposition to war through individual or collective action against militarism. Although complete, enduring peace is the goal of all pacifism, the methods of achieving it differ. Some groups oppose international war but advocate revolution for suppressed nationalities; others are willing to support defensive but not offensive war; others oppose all war, but believe in maintaining a police force; still others believe in no coercive or disciplinary force at all.
The practice of diplomacy based on an assessment of power, material, and prudential matters, without undue concern for theoretical considerations or restraint by ethical worries. The term was first used by the liberal journalist and historian August Ludwig von Rochau. It later came to best characterize the foreign policy of Otto von Bismarck, whom Rochau and others saw as abjuring the pursuit of abstract principles (Idealpolitik) to be guided instead by “the reality of the natural law of power.”
These are articles from online reference books. Click on the title to go to the complete article.
The just-war tradition evolved as a form of Christian political witness to the need to curtail violent conflict in the form of a reflective and deliberative response to the understanding of God’s eternal peace as the aim of history and human susceptibility to the temptation of violence. The overriding purpose of this train of thought has been to scrutinize and direct conduct towards armed conflict and during warfare. Guided by the overall aim of peace (recta intentio), warfare itself was understood as a moral act of judgement with the threefold objective of protecting, penalizing, and restoring justice.
Just War Criteria
The just-war criteria organize discussions of war. They provide a language and structure for choosing the lesser of two evils. Consequently, they do not provide an external or mechanical means to calculate the justice or injustice of either side’s decision to wage war. Initially, the jus ad bellum criteria are used to organize the debate as to whether or not to begin a war.
Just War Doctrine
The ‘just war’ doctrine, in history and political science, attempts to define moral criteria for the initiation of war (jus ad bellum: Latin, ‘justice prior to war’) and the conduct of war (jus in bello: Latin, ‘justice during war’). Attempts to develop just war criteria can be traced to classical Roman law, itself influenced by Greek and Hebrew philosophy. These ideas were systematized in European, Christian canon law (see Catholic political thought) in the early Middle Ages, and then developed further in the 16th and 17th centuries by jurists like Grotius. Key figures in the elaboration of criteria for a just war include St. Augustine in the 5th century, Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, and Reinhold Niebuhr in the 20th.
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America at War
Americans' discontent over the war in Iraq helped propel Barack Obama into the White House. U.S. forces now are preparing to leave Iraq next year, but they may remain in Afghanistan longer than many Obama supporters had hoped.
Ethics of War
The war on terrorism unleashed by the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks has raised questions about how civilized nations should confront enemies that flout established international humanitarian law. Amnesty International and other groups contend the United States is violating the Geneva Convention — which mandates humane treatment of civilians and prisoners of war (POWs) — by holding captives from the war in Afghanistan incommunicado.
Opposing Viewpoints on Just War
Contains links to articles, essays, news, and reference about just war.