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This guide was created for the Women's History Month in March 2021 for which the theme was Women in Medicine. It provides selected resources & provides you assistance in locating other good sources of information on women working in medicine.
A biography of Elsie Meyers, one of seven women to graduate from Indiana University School of Medicine in 1950, is presented. She was born in 1922 in Wolcottville, Indiana and became an anesthesiologist despite the social, educational and economic disadvantages that she encountered. The author explores the obstacles that Meyers needed to overcome as a women pursuing a medical education during a time when sexism and sex discrimination were prevalent in the medical profession.
The article discusses the Archives for Women in Medicine project at the Countway Library's Center for the History of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, which seeks to document the contributions of women medical students and physicians to the study of medicine at Harvard University. The author provides a history of women at Harvard Medical School, connecting women's admission to the school to the wider women's rights movement of the 19th century. She goes on to describe the project's process of collecting materials for the library, particularly oral histories, and notes the collection's accessibility.
The article discusses some case studies of the history of women as patients and physicians and the history of medicine in the United States. It elaborates the history of women and medicine in the context of women's sphere to connect from the American social and political history. Martha Ballard is a rural midwife who practiced from 1785 to 1812. Elizabeth Blackwell is the first American woman graduate in medical college. The Boston Women's Health Book Collective in 1973 published the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves".
A biography is presented for British woman physician Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, born in 1865. She was the first woman doctor in Great Britain, getting her degree from the University of Paris. She established a hospital for women and children in London, England staffed solely by women. She became the first woman mayor in 1908 after her retirement to Aldeburgh, England. She died at age 81 in 1917.
The article reports on a program at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, which features unsung African American medical professionals. The program is called "Celebrating Pioneering African-American Women in Medicine," a part of the hospital's Black History Thursdays in honor of Black History Month. It was held in the Saul Farber Auditorium and highlighted a conversation with retired family physician Dr. Muriel Petioni.
Offers an account of the experiences of Dr. Mary Lee Edward during the First World War. How she graduated from the University of Toronto, Canada; How she created an all-female medical team to serve on the front lines during; How she was awarded the Croix de Guerre, a French military award.
The article focuses on the obstacles faced by the second generation of women in Canada entering professional medicine. Topics mentioned include information on Winnipeg obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. Elinor Black, the impact of the second wave of feminism in the late 20th century on women in medicine and health, and the emergence of James Miranda Barry as the first woman to be identified a doctor in Canada.
The article discusses the history of the Winnipeg Children’s Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba from 1909 to 1925. It examines immigrant populations in Winnipeg and comments on conceptions of race and class in the city's reform movement. The author explores the role of women in founding and running the hospital, analyzing what he calls maternal feminism. Several individuals involved in the hospital are considered including nurse and reformer Annie Bond, doctor Robert "Daddy" Rorke, and hospital superintendent Ethel Johns.
A biography is presented of nurse Florence Nightingale. It discusses her desire to assist the ill and destitute and the outbreak of the Crimean War. Emphasis is given to her management of female nurses, hospital jurisdiction, and reforms in hospital administration. Other topics include the impact of public fame, personality traits, and female nurses in military hospitals.
This article explores women's experiences of entering, training for and practising the profession of dentistry in Ontario during the profession's first fifty years, from 1868-1918). While some studies of sex segregation and women's employment experiences have emphasized processes of exclusion as having a strong negative effect on the employment of women, this study has argued that exclusion did not affect women's entrance into dentistry. The timing and social context of women's entrance into dentistry combined with the different history and nature of dental practice to encourage male dentists' tolerance of women in their profession. This study suggests that, as recent studies have indicated, women have faced certain obstacles within professional employment, because of their minority status in a male-dominated occupation. While there is little doubt that the obstacles were reduced for early women dentists because they shared the class and race background of male dentists, they nevertheless had greater difficulty entering and practising dentistry than men.
The article presents the history and role of women in surgery. It argues that such history has dated back as early as 3500 before the Common Era and began during the time of Queen Shubad of Ur. Such profession among women proliferated in a number of countries during the early times which include Egypt, Italy, and Greece. It also presents the contributions of women in the field of surgery such as Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and Dr. Miranda Stewart.
The article celebrates the competence and dedication of the first generations of women medical students. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton created the Women's National Suffrage Association and launched the feminist journal "Revolution." It describes the 1870 cover from "Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper," a well-known New York City reform newspaper. It reveals the number of trained women doctors in the U.S., according to the census of 1870. The large majority of women doctors were practitioners of homeopathic, eclectic, or botanical medicine. The Medical College for Women in New York City was founded by Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman in the U.S. to graduate with MD degree.
Merit Ptah is widely described as "the first woman physician and scientist" on the Internet and in popular history books. This essay explores the origins of this figure, showing that Merit Ptah came into being in the 1930s when Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead misinterpreted a report about an authentic ancient Egyptian healer. Merit Ptah gradually became a prominent figure in popular historical accounts during second-wave of feminism, and, in the twenty-first century she appeared in Wikipedia and subsequently spread throughout the Internet as a female (sometimes black African) founding figure. The history of Merit Ptah reveals powerful mechanisms of knowledge creation in the network of amateur historians, independently from the scholarly community. The case of Merit Ptah also pinpoints factors enabling the spread of erroneous historical accounts: the absence of professional audience, the development of echo chambers due to an obscured chain of knowledge transmission, the wide reach of the Internet, the coherence with existing preconceptions, the emotional charge of heritage, and even – in the case of ancient Egypt – the tendency to perceive certain pasts through a legendary lens. At the same time, the story of Merit Ptah reveals how important role models have been for women entering science and medicine. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Presents a study on the medical caregiving provided by the neighborhood women in 20th century Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania. Information on the diversity of people living in Mount Carmel; Historiography of medical caregiving; Involvement of immigrant women in midwifery.
In 1877, the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland made history by becoming the first institution in the United Kingdom to take advantage of the Enabling Act of 1876 and admit women to take its medical licences. However, in spite of the fact that the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland was crucial in the registration of early British women doctors in this period, there has, as yet, been little academic attention paid to the history of women in medicine in Ireland. This article traces the history of women's admission to Irish medical schools. Drawing on Irish printed sources, it explores the arguments for and against women in medicine that were propagated during the period. It also investigates the reasons for the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland's decision to admit women to take its licences, arguing that medical schools in Ireland had a more favourable attitude towards the admission of women than was the case in England. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article discusses the gender of nurse and physician in the evolution of medicine. It explains that numbers of women in medical courses today are increasing, breaking the hierarchy of gender that nurses comprised only for women and doctors were for men. It introduces the comparison of male and female nurses as well as the society's gendered role of expectation in the students point of view. It reveals that equality of sexes and equal opportunity in acquiring profession in medicine are contemporarily practiced by subjugating the division of labor.
The article focuses on the involvement of women in medicine. An unresolved social debate began about 100 years ago when the first women started to obtain medical degrees. The professional acceptance of women doctors was supported by the liberal political tradition that considered work a universal right and by the suffragist movement. In almost all countries with a long academic tradition of male doctors the rejection of women was vociferous, it was less so in countries with less structured institutions or in those that were setting up a national state after a revolution. The ultimate change in the traditional role division between men and women in medicine during the last decades of the millennium, is creating a new image of women in the history of medicine. In other words, a new genealogy is determined by the feminization of clinical and basic medicine, and by the incipient masculinisation of nursing and of other health professions. There are two historiographical traditions of women in medicine, the Latin one and the Anglo-Saxon one, that are the result of different models of medical education and of historiographical, social, or intellectual orthodoxies.
The article presents a brief history of women healers, with an emphasis on women urologists. It is stated that women were an integral and respected part of the healing arts in antiquity as evidenced by the practice of worshiping goddesses as healers in ancient Egypt. The barriers to accepting women as full-fledged physicians are enumerated. According to the article, Elizabeth Blackwell opened medical educational channels to women.
The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign-promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities-to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Women physicians have a long history of advocacy, dating to the 19th century women’s suffrage movement. As history recounts the work of the suffragists, many women physicians bear mention. Some were leaders on the national scene, and others led suffrage efforts in their own state. In this article, we provide a snapshot of 7 prominent suffragists who were also physicians: Mary Edwards Walker, Mary Putnam Jacobi, Esther Pohl Lovejoy, Marie Equi, Mattie E. Coleman, Cora Smith Eaton, and Caroline E. Spencer. In sharing their stories, we hope to better understand some of the challenges and struggles of the suffrage movement and how their advocacy paved the way not only for women’s voting rights but also the role of women physicians as advocates for change.