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Counter-Reformation Topic Page
16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present none of the tradition breaking that characterized Protestantism.
1491–1547, king of England (1509–47), second son and successor of Henry VII.
Holy Roman Empire
Designation for the political entity that originated at the coronation as emperor (962) of the German king Otto I and endured until the renunciation (1806) of the imperial title by Francis II. The term itself did not come into usage until several centuries after Otto's accession.
Like every other major movement in the history of Western thought, humanism is susceptible to various interpretations and definitions. It is perhaps best to begin, as P. O. Kristeller does, by stating that the humanist believed that an education based on the reading of classical literature had the power to liberate humanity and to reform it spiritually.
Lutheranism Topic Page
Branch of Protestantism that arose as a result of the Reformation, whose religious faith is based on the principles of Martin Luther, although he opposed such a designation. When Luther realized that the reforms he desired could not be carried out within the Roman Catholic Church, he devoted himself to questions of faith rather than form in the new Evangelical churches that developed.
Martin Luther Topic Page
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders.
Reformation Topic Page
Religious and political movement in 16th-century Europe to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of the Protestant churches. Anticipated by medieval movements such as the Waldenses, Lollards, and Hussites